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ʾAggabāb according to the Qəne School Tradition

Adverbs, Conjunctions, Prepositions, Relative Pronouns, Interrogative Pronouns, Interjections and Particles in Gəʾəz (Classical Ethiopic)


This book deals with various linguistic elements of Gǝʿǝz (Classical Ethiopic). More than two hundred and thirty-four linguistic elements are discussed, categorized into seven lexical categories: Adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, relative pronouns, interrogative pronouns, interjections, and particles. Dealing with their etymologies, meanings and grammatical functions is the particular focus of the work. To make the study clearer and easier to understand, appropriate examples and relevant textual sources are given for each theory or analysis.
Publisher: Gorgias Press LLC
SKU (ISBN): 978-1-4632-4206-0
  • *
Publication Status: In Print
Publication Date: Mar 22,2021
Interior Color: Black
Trim Size: 6 x 9
Page Count: 383
Languages: English, Geez
ISBN: 978-1-4632-4206-0
$77.00
Your price: $53.90

This book deals with various linguistic elements of Gǝʿǝz (Classical Ethiopic). More than two hundred and thirty-four linguistic elements are discussed, categorized into seven lexical categories: Adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, relative pronouns, interrogative pronouns, interjections, and particles. Dealing with their etymologies, meanings and grammatical functions is the particular focus of the work. To make the study clearer and easier to understand, appropriate examples and relevant textual sources are given for each theory or analysis.

This book deals with various linguistic elements of Gǝʿǝz (Classical Ethiopic). More than two hundred and thirty-four linguistic elements are discussed, categorized into seven lexical categories: Adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, relative pronouns, interrogative pronouns, interjections, and particles. Dealing with their etymologies, meanings and grammatical functions is the particular focus of the work. To make the study clearer and easier to understand, appropriate examples and relevant textual sources are given for each theory or analysis.

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ContributorBiography

Hiruie Ermias

Hiruie Ermias is a scholar and researcher of Ethiopian studies with a special focus on Gǝʿǝz language, literature, and history. He received his B.A. in Theology from Holy Trinity Theological University (A.A.), and his MA and PhD in Ethiopian Studies from the University of Hamburg (HH). To date, he has published 17 books, journal articles, and reviews.

Acknowledgments. xiii

List of Tables. xv

Transliteration.. xvii

List of Abbreviations. xix

Biblical Texts. xix

Exgetical, Hagiographical and Hymnodic Books. xxi

In the Annotations. xxi

Other. xxii

Introduction.. 1

Chapter One: General Introduction to ʾAggabāb. 19

Chapter Two: Review of some printed GǝʿǝzGrammars. 37

Chapter Three: Adverbs. 85

Chapter Four: Conjunctions. 151

Chapter Five: Prepositions. 223

Chapter Six: Interrogative Pronouns, Relative Pronouns and Interjections. 261

Chapter Seven: Particles. 289

Chapter Eight: Conclusion.. 329

Acknowledgments. xiii

List of Tables. xv

Transliteration.. xvii

List of Abbreviations. xix

Biblical Texts. xix

Exgetical,  Hagiographical and Hymnodic Books. xxi

In the Annotations. xxi

Other. xxii

Introduction.. 1

ii. The Qǝne Schools as important centers of Gǝʿǝz study. 5

iii. Various stages of the study of Gǝʿǝz grammar. 9

a) Gǝśś9

b) Rǝbā qǝmr. 9

c) Rǝbā gǝśś. 10

d) ʾAggabāb.. 10

iv. Significance of the study. 15

v. Objectives of the study. 16

vi. Statement of the problem... 17

vii. Research methodology. 17

Chapter One:  General Introduction to ʾAggabāb. 19

1.1. Its origin and meaning of the term... 19

1.2. Division of ʾAggabāb according to the tradition.. 20

1.2.1. ʿAbiyy ʾAggabāb.. 21

1.2.2. Nǝʿus ʾAggabāb.. 22

1.2.3. Daqiq ʾAggabāb.. 23

1.3. Division of ʾAggabāb from the perspective of Linguistics. 24

1.3.1. Adverbs. 24

1.3.2. Conjunctions. 24

1.3.3. Prepositions. 24

1.3.4. Relative Pronouns. 24

1.3.5. Interrogative Pronouns. 25

1.3.6. Interjections. 25

1.3.7. Particles. 25

1.4. Adverbial elements according to the tradition of ʾAggabāb. 25

1.4.1. Adverbs of Place and Direction.. 25

1.4.2.   Adverbs of Time. 26

1.4.3. Interrogative Adverbs26

1.4.4. Other Adverbs. 26

1.5. Conjunctional elements according to the tradition of ʾAggabāb  27

1.5.1. Copulative conjunctions. 27

1.5.2. Causal conjunctions. 27

1.5.3. Temporal conjunctions. 27

1.5.4. Adversative Conjunctions. 28

1.5.5. Disjunctive Conjunctions. 28

1.5.6. Consecutive Conjunctions. 28

1.5.7. Place Conjunctions. 28

1.5.8. Conjunctions of Condition.. 28

1.5.9. Other Conjunctions. 28

1.6. Prepositional elements according to the tradition of ʾAggabāb  28

1.6.1. Place preposition.. 28

1.6.2. Prepositions of Time. 29

1.6.3. Comparative Prepositions29

1.6.4. Other Prepositions. 29

1.7. Relative and Interrogative Pronouns according to ʾAggabāb. 30

1.7.1. Relative Pronouns. 30

1.7.2. Interrogative Pronouns. 30

1.8. Interjections according to the tradition of ʾAggabāb. 30

1.9. Particles according to the tradition of ʾAggabāb. 30

1.9.1. Interrogative Particles. 30

1.9.2. Affirmative Particles30

1.9.3. Presentational particles. 30

1.9.4. Particles of uncertainty. 30

1.9.5. Vocative particles: ኦ ʾo ‘o!’31

1.9.6. Particles of supplication: እግዚኦʾǝgziʾo (please). 31

1.9.7. Negative Particles. 31

1.9.8. Particles indicating genitive relation.. 31

1.9.9. Other Particles. 31

1.10. On the Authorship of ʾAggabāb. 31

1.11. On the Transmission of ʾAggabāb. 35

Chapter Two:  Review of some printed GǝʿǝzGrammars. 37

2.1. ACPPIP elements and their classes according to August Dillmann   38

2.1.1. Adverbial elements. 39

2.1.2. Conjunctional elements. 42

2.1.3. Prepositional elements. 44

2.1.4. Interjections, Relative pronouns and Particles. 45

2.2. ACPPIP elements and their classes according to Carlo Conti Rossini46

2.2.1 Adverbial elements. 47

2.2.2 Conjunctional elements. 48

2.2.3 Prepositional elements according to Conti Rossini49

2.2.4 Interrogative and Relative pronouns. 51

2.2.5 Interjections and Particles. 51

2.3. ACPPIP elements included in Josef Tropper’s grammar52

2.3.1 Adverbial elements. 52

2.3.2 Conjunctional elements. 54

2.3.3 Prepositional elements54

2.3.4 Particles. 55

2.4. ACPPIP elements involved in ʾAlaqā Kidāna Wald Kefle’s grammar  57

2.4.1. Adverbial elements. 58

2.4.2 Conjunctional elements. 59

2.4.3. Prepositional elements. 60

2.4.4 Interjections, Relative Pronouns and Particles. 60

2.5. ACPPIP elements and their classes according to Stefan Weninger  62

2.5.1 Relative Pronouns. 63

2.5.2 Interrogative pronouns. 63

2.5.3 Prepositions. 63

2.5.4 Particles indicating Genitive relation.. 63

Chapter Three:  Adverbs. 85

3.1. Adverbs of Place. 85

3.1.1. ህየ hǝyya, ለፌ lafe, ከሃ kahā and ዝየ zǝya. 85

3.1.2. ላዕለlāʿəla, ላዕሉlāʿəlu and ላዕሊተlāʿəlita. 88

3.1.3. መንጸረmanṣara and አንጻረʾanṣara. 90

3.1.4. መትሕተmatḥəta, ታሕተtāḥta and ታሕቲተtāḥtita. 90

3.1.5. ትርአሰtərʾasa and ትርጋጸtərgāṣa. 91

3.1.6. ፍጽመfǝṣma. 92

3.2. Adverbs of Time. 93

3.2.1. ለፌlafe. 93

3.2.2. መቅድመmaqdəma, ቀዲሙqadimu, ቀዳሚqadāmi, ቅድመqǝdma, ቅድምqǝdm and አቅዲሙʾaqdimu   93

3.2.3. ሳኒታsānitā, ትማልምtǝmālǝm, ትካትtǝkāt, ይእዜyǝʾǝze, ዮምyom and ጌሠምgeśam    95

3.2.4. አሚረʾamira. 100

3.2.5. ከዋላkawālā, ደኃሪdaḫāri and ድኅረdǝḫra. 101

3.2.6. ኵለሄ kwǝllahe, ወትረ watra, ውቱረ wǝttura, ዘልፈ zalfa, ዝላፉ zǝlāfu, ለዝሉፉ la-zǝlufu and ግሙራ gǝmurā  103

3.3. Interrogative Adverbs. 106

3.3.1. ማእዜ māʾǝze. 106

3.3.2. ስፍን sǝfn and እስፍንቱ ʾǝsfǝntu.. 107

3.3.3. ቦኑ bonu.. 108

3.3.4. አይቴ ʾayte. 110

3.3.5. እፎ ʾǝffo. 112

3.4. Other Adverbs. 114

3.4.1. ሐሰተ ḥassata and ሕስወ ǝssǝwa. 114

3.4.2. ሕቀ ǝqqa, ንስቲተ nǝstita, ኅዳጠ ǝdāṭa and ውኁደ wǝḫuda  115

3.4.3. መፍትው maftǝw, ሠናየ śannāya, ርቱዕ rǝtuʿ and ድልወት dǝlwat118

3.4.4. ምክብዒተmǝkbǝʿita and ምስብዒተmǝsbǝʾita. 120

3.4.5. ምዕረmǝʿra. 121

3.4.6. ስብዐsǝbʿa, ጥቀǝqqa, ወድአwaddǝʾa, ጽመǝmma and ፍጹመfǝṣṣuma  122

3.4.7. በምልዑ bamǝlʿu and እምድሩ ʾǝmmǝdru.. 124

3.4.8. ባሕቲቱ bāḥtitu and ዕራቁ ʿǝrāqu.. 126

3.4.9. በሕቁ bahǝqqu, ብዝኀ bǝzḫa, ብዙኀ bǝzuḫa, ይሙነ yəmuna and ፈድፋደ fadfāda  128

3.4.10. በከ bakka and ከንቱ kantu.. 130

3.4.11. ኁባሬ ḫubāre, ኅቡረ ǝbura, ኅብረ ǝbra, አሐተኔ ʾaḥattane, ደርገ darga and ድርገተ dǝrgata  132

3.4.12. ኅቡዐ ǝbuʿa. 133

3.4.13. አማን ʾamān and እሙነ ʾǝmuna. 134

3.4.14. እስኩ ʾǝsku.. 135

3.4.15. እንከ ʾǝnka. 136

3.4.16. ካዕበ kāʿǝba, ዓዲ ʿādi and ዳግመ dāgǝma. 138

3.4.17. ክመ kǝmma. 141

3.4.18. ክሡተ kǝśuta, ዐውደ ʿawda and ገሀደ gahada. 142

3.4.19. ዮጊ yogi143

3.4.20. ገጸ gaṣṣa. 144

3.4.21. ግብር gǝbr. 145

3.4.22. ግብተ gǝbta. 145

3.4.23. ድቡተ dǝbbuta and ክቡተ kǝbuta. 146

3.4.24. ድኅሪተ dǝḫrita. 147

3.4.25. ጥንቁቀ ǝnquqa. 148

3.4.26. ጥዩቀ ǝyyuqa. 148

3.4.27. ጽሚተ ǝmmita and ጽምሚተ ǝmǝmita. 149

3.4.28. ፍጡነ fǝṭuna. 150

Chapter Four:  Conjunctions. 151

4.1. Copulative Conjunctions151

4.1.1. ሂ hi, ኒ ni and ወ wa. 151

4.2. Conjunctions expressing Cause. 157

4.2.1. አምጣነ ʾamṭāna, አኮኑ ʾakkonu and እስመ ʾǝsma. 157

4.3 Temporal Conjunctions161

4.3.1. መዋዕለ mawāʿǝla, ሰዐተ saʿata, ሶበ soba, አመ ʾama, ዕለተ ʿǝlata, ዐመተ ʿamata and ጊዜ gize  161

4.3.2. ቅድመ qǝdma. 165

4.3.3. እስከ ʾǝska. 167

4.3.4. እንዘ ʾǝnza. 173

4.3.5. ድኅረ dǝḫra. 177

4.4. Adversative Conjunctions. 179

4.4.1. ሰ sa and ወ wa. 179

4.4.2. ባሕቱ bāḥǝttu, አላ ʾallā and ዳእሙ dāʾǝmu.. 181

4.5. Disjunctive Conjunctions183

4.5.1. ሚመ mimma and አው ʾaw.. 183

4.6. Consecutive Conjunctions. 184

4.6.1. በዘ baza. 184

4.6.2. ከመ kama. 187

4.7. Place Conjunctions. 192

4.7.1. መንገለ mangala and ኀበ ḫaba. 192

4.8. Conjunctions of condition.. 196

4.8.1. እመ ʾəmma and ሶበ soba. 196

4.8.2. ወእደ waʾǝda. 200

4.9. Other Conjunctions. 201

4.9.1. ህየንተ hǝyyanta, በቀለ baqala ተውላጠ tawlāṭa and ፍዳ fǝddā  201

4.9.2. መጠነ maṭana, አምጣነ ʾamṭāna and ዐቅመ ʿaqma. 203

4.9.3. በእንተ baʾǝnta, በይነ bayna and እንበይነ ʾǝnbayna. 207

4.9.4. አምሳለ ʾamsāla and አርአያ ʾarʾayā. 210

4.9.5. ብሂለ bǝhila. 211

4.9.6. እም ʾəm... 213

4.9.7. እንበለ ʾǝnbala. 220

Chapter Five:  Prepositions. 223

5.1. Prepositions of Place. 223

5.1.1. ላዕለ ʿla, መልዕልተ malʿəlta and ዲበ diba. 223

5.1.2. መትሕተ matḥəta and ታሕተ tāḥta. 226

5.1.3. መንገለ mangala and ኀበ ḫaba. 227

5.1.4. መንጸረ manṣara, መቅድመ maqdəma, ቅድመ qədma, አንጻረʾanṣāra and ገጸ gaṣṣa   228

5.1.5. ማእከለ māʾǝkala. 230

5.1.6. ማዕዶተ māʿdota. 232

5.1.7. አፍኣʾafʾā. 233

5.1.8. እስከʾǝska. 234

5.1.9. እንተʾǝnta. 234

5.1.10. ከዋላ kawālā and ድኅረ dəḥra. 235

5.1.11. ውስተ wəsta, ውስጠ wəsṭa, ውሳጤ wəsāṭe and ውሳጢተ wəsāṭita  236

5.1.12. ዐውደʿawda. 240

5.1.13. ገቦ gabo, ጎረ gora and ጥቃ ṭəqā. 241

5.2. Prepositions of Time. 242

5.2.1. ሳኒታ sānitā. 242

5.2.2. ሶበ soba, አመ ʾama, ዕድሜ ʿǝdme and ጊዜ gize. 243

5.2.3. አፈʾafa and ፍና fǝnnā. 244

5.3 Comparative Preposition.. 245

5.3.1. መጠነ maṭana and አምጣነ ʾamṭāna. 245

5.3.2. አምሳለʾamsāla and አርአያ ʾarʾayā. 245

5.3.3. አያተʾayāta. 246

5.3.4. እምʾǝm... 246

5.3.5. ከመ kama. 246

5.4 Other Prepositions. 248

5.4.1. ህየንተ hǝyyanta, በእንተ baʾǝnta, ቤዛ bezā, ተክለ takla and ተውላጠ tawlāṭa  248

5.4.2. ለ la. 249

5.4.3. ምስለ məsla. 252

5.4.4. በ ba. 254

5.4.5. እንበለ ʾǝnbala. 257

Chapter Six:  Interrogative Pronouns, Relative Pronouns and Interjections261

6.1. Interrogative Pronouns: መኑ mannu,ሚ mi, ምንትmǝnt and አይ ʾāy  262

6.2. Relative Pronouns. 273

6.2.1. እለ ʾǝlla, እንተ ʾǝnta and ዘ za. 273

6.3. Interjections. 285

6.3.1. Exclamations of Joy. 285

6.3.2. Exclamations of Pain, Sorrow and Anxiety. 286

Chapter Seven:  Particles. 289

7.1. Interrogative Particles. 289

7.1.1. ሁ hu and ኑ nu.. 289

7.1.6. (PartNeg. + nu) አኮኑ፡ዐሠርቱ፡ወክልዔቱ፡ሰዓቱ፡ለዕለት። (John 11:9).291

7.2. Affirmative Particles. 294

7.2.1. እወ ʾǝwwa. 294

7.2.2. ኦሆ ʾoho. 295

7.2.3. ጓ gwā. 296

7.3. Presentational Particles297

7.3.1. ነያ nayā, ነዋ nawā and ናሁ nāhu.. 297

7.4. Particles of Uncertainity. 299

7.4.1. እንዳዒ ʾǝndāʿi and እንጋ ʾǝngā. 299

7.5. Vocative Particle. 300

7.5.1. ኦʾo. 300

7.6. Particle of Sincerity and Supplication.. 305

7.6.1. እግዚኦʾǝgziʾo. 305

7.7. Negative Particles306

7.7.1. አልʾal and ኢ ʾi306

7.7.2. አኮ ʾakko ‘not’ and እንብ ʾǝnb ‘no’313

7.8. Accusative Particle. 313

7.8.1. ሃ hā. 313

7.9. Particles indicating Genitive relation.. 314

7.9.1. ለ la as, እለ ʾǝlla, እንተ ʾǝnta and ዘ za. 314

7.10. Other Particles. 317

7.10.1. መ ma, ሰ sa, ሶ so, አ-ኣ ʾa -ʾā and ኬ ke. 317

7.10.2. ያ and ዮ yo. 326

Chapter Eight:  Conclusion.. 329

8.1. Concluding observations on ʾAggabāb and its issues329

8.2. General remarks about the study. 337

Summary. 341

Zusammenfassung. 343

List of References. 345

Glossary. 353

Index  359

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A Rhetorical Analysis of Athanasius' Orations against the Arians
ISBN: 978-1-4632-4257-2
The Orations against the Arians are an important landmark in the development of Christological and Trinitarian doctrine. The Orations contain extensive references to the Christian Scriptures and are steeped in rhetoric. The use of Scripture and polemical rhetoric against Athanasius’ theological opponents, the Arians, is intricately interwoven. This monograph offers a rhetorical analysis of the Orations against the Arians to demonstrate the interplay of scriptural reasoning and polemic in Athanasius’ work. In this way, Boezelman’s study provides a fresh perspective on the reception of John’s Gospel in the fourth century.
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