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Pluralism and Plurality in Islamic Legal Scholarship

The Case of the Fatāwā l-ʿĀlamgīrīya


This book presents the positions held by ḥanafite Muslim jurists in South Asia in the 17th century with regard to the coexistence of Muslims and non-Muslims, and, secondly, compares the opinions put forth by these South Asian jurists with those maintained by their counterparts in Central Asia and the Middle East.
Publisher: Gorgias Press LLC
Availability: In stock
SKU (ISBN): 978-1-4632-4231-2
  • *
Publication Status: In Print
Publication Date: Jul 28,2021
Interior Color: Black
Trim Size: 6 x 9
Page Count: 259
Language: English
ISBN: 978-1-4632-4231-2
$114.95
Your price: $91.96

This book presents the positions held by ḥanafite Muslim jurists in South Asia in the 17th century with regard to the coexistence of Muslims and non-Muslims, and, secondly, compares the opinions put forth by these South Asian jurists with those maintained by their counterparts in Central Asia and the Middle East.

This book presents the positions held by ḥanafite Muslim jurists in South Asia in the 17th century with regard to the coexistence of Muslims and non-Muslims, and, secondly, compares the opinions put forth by these South Asian jurists with those maintained by their counterparts in Central Asia and the Middle East.

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ContributorBiography

Mouez Khalfaoui

Mouez Khalfaoui is a Professor of Islamic Jurisprudence and Islamic Thought at the University of Tuebingen, Germany. He graduated from the University of Tunis and got a PhD in Islamic Studies from the University of Erfurt. He has lectured at the Universities of Tunis and Berlin, and is a member of several publishing, advising, social and political boards in Europe and worldwide. His main research fields are Islamic Law and Ethics, Minority Law, Islamic Education, Law and Society and Arabic Literature.

Author’s Preface for the English Translation ............................ ix
Introduction .............................................................................. 1
1. The Historical Context: South Asia in the Seventeenth
Century ...................................................................... 2
2. Interfaith Relations in Seventeenth-Century South
Asia ........................................................................... 6
3. Pluralism: More Than Just Tolerance ........................... 12
4. Corpus, Hypothesis and Research Method ................... 14
5. Aims and Methodology ................................................ 20
Chapter One. The Text of the Fatāwā l-ʿĀlamgīrīya ................. 23
1. The Genre of the Fatāwā l-ʿĀlamgīrīya .......................... 27
The Place of the FA in Hanafi Legal Scholarship ......... 32
2. The Fatwa Pact ............................................................ 41
Formalisation as a Tool of Reception and
Reproduction ...................................................... 45
3. The Authors of the FA ................................................. 49
Sources....................................................................... 50
Authors ...................................................................... 51
Map 1: The geographical displacement of the authors of
the FA ...................................................................... 56
4. Aurangzeb’s Relationship to the Authors of the FA ...... 58
Chapter Two. The FA and Minority Rights .............................. 65
1. Non-Muslim Minorities under Muslim Rule in the
Premodern Era ......................................................... 67
2. Muslim Minorities in Non-Muslim Territories .............. 70

3. The Muslim Minority in South Asia during the
Seventeenth Century According to the Fatāwā l-
ʿĀlamgīrīya ............................................................... 72
Chapter Three. Together but Separate: The Concept of Border
in the FA ......................................................................... 75
1. The Borders of the Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth
Century .................................................................... 84
2. The Social or Symbolic Border ..................................... 86
Chapter Four. The Legal Status of Non-Muslims ...................... 91
1. The Concept of Dhimma .............................................. 91
2. The Legal Qualification of Non-Muslims ...................... 99
Chapter Five. The Spiritual Freedom of Non-Muslims ........... 107
1. Freedom of Conscience .............................................. 107
2. Historical Aspects of Conversion to Islam in
Seventeenth-Century South Asia ............................ 113
3. The Debate on Apostasy ............................................ 117
4. The Status of Non-Muslim Religious Buildings ........... 123
5. Non-Muslim Religious Ceremonies ............................ 128
Chapter Six. The Individual Liberties of Non-Muslims ........... 135
1. Distinguishing Symbols ............................................. 141
Chapter Seven. The Personal Status of Non-Muslims ............. 147
1. Marriage and Divorce ................................................ 147
2. Marriage Between Non-Muslims ................................ 148
3. Marriage between Muslim Men and Dhimmi Women 150
4. The Institution of Marriage ........................................ 152
Chapter Eight. The Economic Factor ..................................... 155
1. The Non-Muslim Peasant ........................................... 156
2. The Non-Muslim Merchant ........................................ 158
3. City and Village, City Dwellers and Villagers ............. 159
4. Commercial Conventions ........................................... 162
5. Partnership between Muslims and Non-Muslims ........ 162
6. Total Partnership between Muslims and Non-Muslims
.............................................................................. 163
7. Partial Partnership .................................................... 165
8. Professional Partnership ............................................ 165
9. The Profit .................................................................. 166

10. The Economic Relationship Between the Muslim
State and its Non-Muslim Subjects ......................... 168
11. The Capitation Tax (ǧizya) ....................................... 169
Aurangzeb’s Imposition of the Ǧizya ......................... 170
12. The Property and Land Tax (ḫarāǧ).......................... 178
13. The Farmāns of Aurangzeb....................................... 179
14. The Status of Lands According to the FA ................. 180
15. The Treatment of Non-Muslim Peasants ................... 182
16. The Madad-i-Maʿāš .................................................. 185
17. The Evolution of the Islamic Law on Land Tax
(ḫarāǧ) ................................................................... 186
18. The Ḫarāǧ according to Baber Johansen’s Interpretation
................................................................ 188
19. The Ḫarāǧ According to the South Asian Jurists ....... 189
Chapter Nine. Civil and Political Relations ............................ 195
1. Civil Service .............................................................. 195
2. The Hierarchy of South Asian Society according to
the FA .................................................................... 203
Conclusion ............................................................................ 215
1. Standards of Interreligious Relations according to the
FA.......................................................................... 218
2. The Manifesto on Interreligious Relationships ........... 226
Bibliography ......................................................................... 233
Ancient Sources in Arabic ......................................... 233
Secondary Sources in Arabic..................................... 234
Sources in Urdu ........................................................ 235
Persian Sources in English Translation...................... 235
Sources in English, French and German .................... 235
Online Sources ......................................................... 249

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